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dyslexia, really?

Convergence Insufficiency: the REAL story

CONVERGENCE INSUFFICIENCY affects 13% of the population and yet very few practitioners are aware of its existence and only a handful of people have considered the possibility that it might impact upon a child’s ability to learn to read.

Potentially over 30% of children currently diagnosed as suffering from dyslexia may well in fact have convergence insufficiency, a condition that can be diagnosed in minutes and treated effectively in a matter of weeks. ......

in the news

Robin Pauc, director of the Tinsley House Clinic suggests, that 30% of children currently diagnosed as having dyslexia instead have CONVERGENCE INSUFFICIENCY, a common eye condition that can be diagnosed in minutes and treated in weeks.


what is

convergence insufficiency?

www.convergenceinsufficiency.org

Vision and Reading

www.childrensvision.com/reading.htm

Our eyes are designed to work as a team, but each eye functions independently. When we look at something, the right eye records the image and the left eye records the image. Then the two separate images are transmitted up the optic nerves to the brain, which combines them into a single picture. For the visual system to work correctly, each eye must aim at the exact same point in space so that the images being recorded are identical. This allows the brain to combine, or "fuse", the two incoming images for clear, comfortable single vision. However, if the eyes aren't aiming together, then the images being recorded are slightly different. If the disparity is great enough, the brain can't combine the two pictures. The result is double vision.


Are weak eye muscles holding your child back at school?


www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1213459/Are-weak-eye-muscles-holding-child-school.html

School means reading, and lots of it. It's not just that they find it hard: it can also be a pain, quite literally. There are all sorts of reasons for learning difficulties, but for some children - perhaps as many as 400,000 - the problem lies with the way their eyes work.

If the muscles around the eyes are weak, the eyes won't work as a co-ordinated pair. This makes it difficult to focus clearly on something as small as the printed words on a page.

Quite apart from causing reading problems, this inability to focus the eyes together can lead to headaches.


Accommodative and Vergence Dysfunction


www.aoa.org/documents/CPG-18.pdf

Many children who have reading problems, are learning disabled or dyslexic have accommodative and vergence problems....... The clinician should suspect a binocular or accommodative problem in any child whose school performance drops around third grade or who is described as inattentive.......


Stereopsis, accommodative and vergence facility: do they relate to dyslexia?


www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1766644

Dyslexics performed significantly worse than the matched normal readers on a test of vergence facility. These results, in agreement with those reported by other studies, indicate that less efficient dynamic vergence facility may contribute to reading impairment, unlike other static functions such as visual acuity and stereopsis. It may be that the vergence problems of the dyslexics are related to sequential oculo-motor abnormalities. The dyslexics' vergence problems may also be partly responsible for their large number of small eye movements.


The occurrence, identification and treatment of convergence failure in children with dyslexia


http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1479235408000667

This paper examines a neurological manifestation, convergence insufficiency, as yet not considered in association with the primary diagnosis of learning/behavioural disorders. When the data from a previous study were initially examined what appeared to be a significantly high number of the children (57%) demonstrated convergence failure on testing.



Frequency of convergence insufficiency.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10498006

13% of the children studied had definite convergence insufficiency, while another 8% had more mild convergence problems.


Vision Development Center


http://www.visiondevelopmentcenterpc.com/convergence-insufficiency-may-affect-5-12-percent-of-american-children/


According to the American Optometric Association, 60 percent of students identified as “problem learners” may actually have undetected vision problems. One of those problems could be something called convergence insufficiency.

Lions Crane Literacy Program Handbook


http://www.nmlcrf.com/html/Handbook.pdf

A detailed study of how vision problems and food allergies can cause children to struggle with reading, and what to do about it.



OnTrack Reading

www.ontrackreading.com/dyslexia-puzzle/convergence-insufficiency-study

One of the more common vision problems associated with reading difficulty, or dyslexia if you wish to call it that, is convergence insufficiency. You converge your eyes when you move your eyes inward to view something close to you. Conversely, you diverge your eyes when you move them apart to view something at a distance. MANY CHILDREN WITH READING PROBLEMS HAVE TROUBLE CONVERGING. They either can’t converge enough to be comfortable with print, or if they can do so, they can’t sustain the effort during the long periods they are expected to read. Either situation is called convergence insufficiency. ........


Research Studies

Ophthalmic findings in dyslexic schoolchildren


http://bmj-bjo.highwire.org/content/78/5/339.full.pdf

This study published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology found convergence problems were more common in dyslexic children than the general population.

The most conspicuous common denominator in those with dyslexia was convergence insufficiency ...

Diagnosis of dyslexia by means of a new indicator of eye dominance.


http://bjo.bmj.com/content/66/5/332.full.pdf

This study published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology found many dyslexic children are unable accurately to control the movements of their eyes even when they are not trying to read.

Over half the dyslexics showed unstable ocular motor dominance.

Visual skills of poor readers in high school.


http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1529183907003533

This study published in Optometry - Journal of the American Optometric Association found 80% of teenage poor readers were found to be inadequate or weak in 1 or more of the following visual skills: binocular fusion ranges at near, accommodative facility, and convergence near point.

The results indicate that poor readers in high school may be at high risk for poor saccadic tracking skill.

Saccadic tracking skills of poor readers in high school.


http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1529183908000043

This study published in Optometry - Journal of the American Optometric Association found poor readers in the 9th grade had horizontal (saccadic) times which were typical of grade 3, and the average number of errors on the horizontal test was typical of grade 2.

The results indicate that poor readers in high school may be at high risk for poor saccadic tracking skill.

Reduced Visual Convergence in People with Autism


A study, published in the JOURNAL of AUTISM and DEVLOPMENTAL DISORDERS, reported they found a significant difference in the visual convergence in people with autism as compared to typically developing age-matched control subjects.


Vision in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Evidence for Reduced Convergence


Evidence of atypical perception in individuals with ASD is mainly based on self report, parental questionnaires or psychophysical/cognitive paradigms. There have been relatively few attempts to establish whether binocular vision is enhanced, intact or abnormal in those with ASD. To address this, we screened visual function in 51 individuals with autistic spectrum disorder and 44 typically developing individuals by measuring visual acuity, stereoacuity, convergence, divergence, ocular motility, incidence of strabismus and integrity of the optokinetic response. The data suggest that many aspects of vision, including visual acuity, are unaffected in ASD, but that convergence is an aspect of visual function that merits further research in those with ASD......


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